Transportation of perishable products

What types of products are there?

Food products vary in the length of time they can travel without losing quality. Depending on the production conditions and name, food is divided into 2 categories:

  • perishable;
  • non-perishable.

Perishable food

This type includes food that has a short shelf life. It must be handled very carefully and the necessary standards must be followed. Products are very picky about ambient temperature and humidity levels. The carrier will have to maintain the recommended parameters. Therefore, special equipment will be needed to transport delicate goods.

Refrigerators cope best with the task, because their freezing unit is capable of maintaining a wide range of negative temperatures, and the insulated van maintains conditions favorable for storage for a long time. In second place in popularity are isothermal cars. They can maintain the desired temperature for a long time.

Perishable products are:

  • Technologically processed: cheese and dairy products, sausages.
  • Plant-based: nuts, berries and vegetables.
  • Animal origin: honey, meat, fish and poultry.

There is another classification that divides food into groups according to temperature indicators:

  • Refrigerated. Example: fruits and vegetables. Optimal storage temperature: from 0 to +15 degrees Celsius.
  • Chilled. Example: semi-finished butter. Optimal storage temperature: from 0 to -5 degrees Celsius.
  • Frozen. Examples: bird name. Optimal storage temperature: from -6 to -20 degrees Celsius.

Non-perishable foods

These foods can be consumed for a long time. Cereals, sugar and salt are stored for a very long time, as are canned goods. To deliver them to the consignee’s warehouse, there is no need to use isotherms and refrigerators. A tented van is enough, inside which you can maintain the desired level of air humidity.

Methods of transportation by road

Transportation and carriage of perishable goods is regulated by the General Rules for the Transport of Goods by Road, and in international transport - by the ATP Agreement on the International Transport of Food Products. Perishable goods are transported in vehicles that can only be used for transporting products and comply with sanitary requirements.

The body of isothermal vehicles is made of heat-insulating material that covers the floor, walls, doors and ceiling. There are three classes of vehicles for transporting products:

  • Glaciers - in such vehicles, the internal temperature regime is maintained using natural or dry ice, or using liquefied gas.
  • Refrigerators, like glaciers, are capable of maintaining temperature conditions, but special refrigeration systems are used: compressor units or absorption units.
  • Heated vehicles: In such vehicles, the temperature rises and is maintained for 12 hours thanks to the heating system.

When delivering by road, the consignor indicates in the invoices not only the loading time and delivery time, but also the temperature regime that must be observed.

The use of road transport is very popular among shippers due to its mobility. The second reason for choosing this type of transportation is its ease of use.

When transporting by road over a distance of up to 1000 km, road transport significantly outperforms rail transport. Moreover, most of the vehicle fleet is equipped with satellite monitoring systems, which allows you to control movement.

The refrigerated truck maintains the temperature regime using special units

Legislative norms

The conditions for transporting food products were established back in 1994. The document was named SanPiN It is intended for commercial enterprises and describes in detail the conditions that must be observed in order to significantly extend the shelf life of goods. In some paragraphs, SanPiN also refers to other legislative acts.

The basic requirements of the document regulate the activities of organizations that warehouse, store, process and sell products. Legislators are paying increased attention to food transportation standards. It is important to deliver the cargo so that it does not deteriorate; for this you need not only to choose and equip the vehicle correctly, but also to take care of the driver’s health.

Responsibilities of drivers and forwarders

The conditions for transporting food products require the driver to undergo regular medical examinations. He must have a valid health certificate with notes on the last inspection. The driver should observe personal hygiene rules and wear special dark-colored clothing.

It should be remembered that a driver without a sanitary certificate will not be able to obtain a sanitary passport for his truck.

You cannot transport freight forwarders in a van sitting on food packages. It is necessary to comply with the requirements of SanPiN. A separate place should be allocated for personnel in which clothing and materials needed to cover goods will be stored. Loaders must perform loading and unloading operations in white sanitary clothing.

Operating personnel are required to know and follow transportation rules. Employees of shipping companies must take their job duties very seriously, because products are a special cargo that ends up on store shelves.

What should a car be like?

In order for the requirements for the transportation of food by road to be strictly observed, you need to choose a vehicle whose design and condition are suitable for meeting all the necessary conditions. In this case, there will be no difficulties during movement, and the cargo will reach the recipient completely intact.

Sanitary standards

Each vehicle delivering food must receive a sanitary passport. This is a mandatory requirement. The paper is issued for a period of six months for the delivery of non-perishable products and for 3 months for the transportation of perishable goods. The document contains information about the latest sanitary treatments of the body.

Purpose of the car

The main condition is that you cannot use a truck that previously delivered harmful and odorous substances to deliver food. These include gasoline, kerosene and toxic substances. A strong odor can be absorbed into the food, which is unacceptable. Toxic substances are very persistent, so they are difficult to wash off.

According to the requirements of SanPiN, for some types of products you should use a special vehicle that has the appropriate markings. These types include: dairy products, meat, bread, fish and sausage.

The covering of the inside of the van should be made of materials that facilitate the washing procedure. This norm will help to quickly clear the vehicle's workspace of cargo residues.

Body cleanliness

The requirements for a vehicle transporting food are very stringent. The body must be perfectly clean. Each treatment must be recorded in a sanitary passport. Surfaces must be cleaned not only before loading, but also after completion of the voyage. Water of a certain temperature should be used. Not all cleaning products are suitable for processing. They should not contain hazardous substances.

The staff cannot wash the body themselves because it is sometimes difficult to follow all the rules. The carrier needs to contact a specialized organization, whose employees have the right to enter information into the vehicle’s sanitary passport.

To comply with the requirements, conventional cleaning with detergents may not be sufficient. Tanks in which oil is transported must not only be washed with water, but also treated with hot steam for several hours. Only this method will completely clear the remaining product.

Transportation of perishable products

Category: Fundamentals of merchandising

Transportation of perishable and especially perishable goods is carried out by all types of transport, however, for each type of transport there are special conditions (rules) for the implementation of these transportations: 1. By road - “Rules for the transportation of perishable goods by road in intercity traffic” (section 13 of the “Rules for the transportation of goods” by car"); 2. By air - Article 2.16 “Transportation of perishable goods” of the Guidelines for Freight Transportation on Domestic Air Lines of the USSR (RGP); 3. Railway transport - “Rules for the transportation of perishable goods by rail”; 4. By sea - “Rules for the maritime transportation of perishable goods in refrigerated containers.” The general case is transportation by road, the rules of transportation by this type of transport are most clearly regulated, the rules of transportation by other modes of transport, in fact, are only complementary to the rules of transportation by road. According to the “Rules for the transportation of perishable goods by road in intercity traffic”, perishable goods presented by the consignor for transportation must have a temperature during loading no higher than that specified in column 3 of Appendix No. 1 to the Rules, and motor transport enterprises are obliged to ensure the temperature regime specified in the columns in the body of refrigerated trucks 4 and 5 of Appendix No. 1. Acceptance for transportation of fresh vegetables and fruits with a temperature higher than that specified in column 3 of Appendix No. 1 is allowed. In this case, shippers are required to load refrigerated trucks from 22:00 to 8:00 (in agreement with motor transport enterprises).

Rolling stock supplied by a motor transport enterprise for the transportation of perishable goods must meet established sanitary requirements and have a sanitary passport. Checking the technical condition of rolling stock, including refrigeration units, is not the responsibility of the consignor, and the responsibility for its serviceability lies with the motor transport enterprise or organization. A motor transport enterprise or organization is obliged to provide rolling stock for loading perishable goods in the summer with cooling and in winter with heating to the temperature conditions specified in column 4 of Appendix No. 1 to the “Rules for the transportation of perishable goods by road in intercity traffic.” The temperature of perishable goods before loading and the temperature in the body of the refrigerated truck that arrived for loading, as well as the temperature in the body of the refrigerated truck that arrived at the consignee’s address, must be noted in the Cargo Temperature Checklist and in the body of the refrigerated truck and in the consignment note. The flasks must be tightly closed with lids with a rubber or paper gasket and sealed with the sender's seal if the cargo is delivered to several recipients and it is not possible to seal the entire vehicle. Fruits and vegetables must be presented for transportation and accepted by a motor transport enterprise or organization only in packaged form. In exceptional cases, due to special circumstances, perishable goods, the condition and packaging of which do not meet the requirements of standards or technical specifications, can be accepted for transportation on conditions agreed upon between the motor transport enterprise and the shipper. Meat products, as well as raw animal products, are accepted for transportation only if there are veterinary certificates issued by the Rosselkhoznadzor authorities. Live plants, flowers, tubers, fruits, seeds, etc., sent from areas declared under quarantine, are accepted for transportation only upon presentation by the sender of permits and quarantine certificates issued by Rosselkhoznadzor and its territorial bodies for each consignment.

A motor transport enterprise or organization has the right to selectively check the quality of perishable goods presented for transportation, the condition of the containers and their compliance with established standards or technical conditions, while cargo in sealed packaging is not checked. The opening of the cargo and its subsequent packaging after inspection are carried out by the shipper.

The shipper is obliged, together with the consignment note issued by him, to present to the motor transport enterprise documents confirming compliance with the standards, as well as the necessary accompanying documentation indicating the actual temperature of the cargo before loading, as well as the quality condition of the cargo and packaging. When transporting vegetables and fruits, the name of the pomological varieties is also indicated.

The shipper is obliged to indicate in any of the accompanying documents the maximum duration of transportation (transportability) of perishable goods presented for transportation. Perishable goods are not accepted for transportation if the shipper does not indicate the maximum duration of transportation (transportability) in the transportation documents, and also if the maximum duration of transportation (transportability) is less than the delivery time.

It is allowed to transport together in one vehicle different types of perishable goods included in the same group (Appendix No. 3 to the “Rules for the transportation of perishable goods by road in intercity traffic”), for which the same temperature regime is established, and for the time established for the transportation of the least resistant cargo Joint transportation of goods belonging to different groups is not permitted.

The following goods are also not allowed to be transported together in one vehicle with other products: 1. Frozen and chilled fish; 2. Herring, salted fish, caviar; 3. Smoked fish products; 4. Dry and smoked-dried fish and dry fish concentrates; 5. Chilled meat; 6. Smoked meats and smoked sausages; 7. Cheeses of all types; 8. Fruits with a strong aroma (oranges, lemons, tangerines, melons); 9. Vegetables with a strong smell (onions, garlic); 10. Baker's yeast; 11. Margarine.

Transportation of frozen goods together with chilled or cooled ones, as well as chilled meat with chilled ones, is not allowed. Frozen cargo is stacked in the body in dense stacks with the greatest use of body volume. Laying of fresh and refrigerated perishable goods packed in containers must be done in such a way as to ensure air circulation, while the distance between the ceiling and the top row of the load must be at least 30-35 cm and there should be no gap between the last row of the load and the back wall body The shipper is responsible for the correct stowage of perishable cargo in the body of the rolling stock. Loaded refrigerated vehicles, vans and milk tankers must be sealed by the shipper. Motor transport enterprises or organizations must deliver perishable goods by intercity road transport within a time period calculated based on the actual transportation distance and an average daily mileage of 600 km. Cargo delivery times are calculated from the moment of completion of loading and paperwork until the vehicles arrive at the consignee. A motor transport enterprise or organization has the right, by agreement with the shipper, to accept perishable goods for transportation in the shortest possible time. The delivery time is indicated by the motor transport company or organization in the consignment note.

In cases where further transportation of perishable goods is impossible due to a breakdown of the refrigeration unit due to any other technical malfunctions of the rolling stock, or there are external signs of damage to the transported cargo (smudges), the motor transport company or organization is obliged to take possible measures to transfer the cargo to the local trade network for implementation. The basis for removing cargo from transportation is an act drawn up by a commission of representatives of the motor transport enterprise, Rospotrebnadzor or an organization authorized by it and a trading (sales) organization, and in the absence of Rospotrebnadzor or an organization authorized by it - with the participation of a trading (sales) and disinterested organizations.

The rolling stock released after the transportation of perishable goods must be cleared by the consignee of cargo residues, as well as washed and disinfected within the time frame by agreement of the parties, depending on the specific conditions, with a note about this in the consignment note. The higher organization of the shipper has the right to organize the implementation of work on sanitary processing of rolling stock in a centralized manner. In some cases, a motor transport enterprise or organization may undertake sanitary processing of rolling stock at the expense of the consignee with payment in accordance with the Unified Tariffs for the Transportation of Goods by Motor Transport.

Specialized rolling stock (refrigerated trucks), intended for the transportation of perishable goods, in the downstream and return directions are allowed to be loaded with cargo that does not pollute or damage the body of the rolling stock, does not have a persistent odor, as well as parts made of glass. After transporting fish, herring and fish products, it is not allowed to transport food products that are not packaged in hermetically sealed containers, cigarette tubes, toys, books, carpets, furs, clothing, fabrics, hats, cotton wool, yarn, stationery and other cargo. Transportation of food products, as well as cotton wool, jewelry, books, carpets, furs, clothing, yarn, fluff, feathers, containers, cotton is allowed after transportation of meat only after preliminary cleaning and washing of the body. After transportation of rubber, straw, porcelain and earthenware products, coffee, bay leaves, flour, pepper, down, feathers, yarn, salt, sealing wax, tea, loading of perishable goods into the body of the rolling stock is allowed only after its preliminary cleaning and washing.

Air transportation

The rules for transporting food on an airplane are practically no different from those that apply during transportation by road. But there are a few additional points.

According to regulations, frozen meat and seafood should be delivered tightly packed using special thermal containers that maintain the required temperature.

The rules require that vegetables and fruits be transported in durable containers. Thanks to the packaging, the cargo does not deform and retains its consumer characteristics throughout the flight.

It is mandatory that the accompanying documentation be properly completed. You need to obtain veterinary certificates for the cargo and issue invoices.

If all the rules and regulations are followed, the regulatory authorities do not have any questions for the carrier. In this case, the goods will arrive at the consignee's warehouse exactly on time.

What does the legislation say about the transportation of perishable goods?

In accordance with the ATP agreement, these provisions apply to any transportation of quick-frozen or deep-frozen goods. These rules apply to both road and rail transport. The most important thing is that the loading and unloading of goods must be carried out in two different countries, and in order for the ATP agreement to be valid on the transport route, the country of unloading must act as one of the parties to this agreement.

When transporting perishable products, it is necessary to strictly follow the requirements set out in the international agreement. For example, meat products, pasteurized milk, butter, fresh dairy products (yogurt, kefir, cream, fresh cheese), ready-to-eat cooked products (meat, fish, vegetables), ready-to-eat raw vegetables, concentrated fruit juice and fish products must be transported at a temperature not exceeding +6 degrees Celsius or at the temperature indicated on the label.

During transportation, as well as during loading and unloading, the temperature of the cargo at any point cannot be higher. It is important to note that the products listed above should not be frozen.

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