Types of excavators and their features

Belarus brand tractors are successfully used with special hydromechanical equipment integrated on the machine chassis to perform all kinds of work. Popular MTZ models of traction class 1.4 kN equipped with earth-moving and loading mechanisms have become indispensable equipment in the national economy. The technical and operational characteristics of excavators based on the MTZ-82, MTZ-80 chassis are ideal for performing operations when laying and repairing underground communication lines, in construction and reclamation work. The transmission and wheelbase of the machine ensures rapid, self-propelled movement of the excavator to the work site on paved roads and off-road, has good performance, and is easy to maintain and repair. The equipment has good driving characteristics, the power of the power unit ensures the operation of the equipment.

Excavators based on the line of modern modifications of Belarus brand tractors - MTZ 82.1, 92P, 1523, 1221 are popular in the special equipment market, successfully compete with imported analogues, and captivate with their price, reliability and functionality.

Design of excavators based on MTZ

The layout of earth-moving machines based on MTZ wheeled tractors consists of the location of hydraulically controlled equipment on the rear body of the machine frame and additional front equipment on the front linkage and beams of the tractor frame. The machine operator's workplace can be transformed by rotating the seat 180° to allow the machine to operate while moving and when operating rear excavator equipment. The overview cabin allows you to monitor and manage work processes around the perimeter of the machine. The tractor is equipped with an additional autonomous hydraulic system designed to control and drive the working parts of the excavator's earthmoving equipment. Control is carried out by levers, special distributor. equipment located on the panel of the rear wall of the cabin.

Excavator diagram based on MTZ

Machine components and assemblies

The machine's additional autonomous hydraulic system is designed to service the earth-moving mechanism. It includes a hydraulic pump, control distributors and a system of hydraulic power cylinders ( 16,12,5,6,7 ) connected to the moving parts of the excavator mechanism. The pump is driven from the rear PTO of the tractor.

The digging organ of the machine consists of:

  • Platform 4 , which performs the function of attaching the working mechanism to the rear axle housing of the tractor and the turntable for the excavator boom. The platform allows the excavator body to rotate horizontally and change its inclination within the boundaries of the rotation angles, providing direction for digging and unloading soil.
  • the boom 11 provides an articulation with the arm of the digging mechanism. Its length and slope ensures the vertical position of the working parts.
  • Shoulder 10 provides force on the articulated digging bucket. In combination with the boom, its position determines the digging depth and soil unloading height relative to the position of the machine.
  • Bucket 9 is an active digging part of the mechanism - its volume ensures the excavation or loading of soil.
  • To ensure stability of the excavator during operation, the machine is equipped with a pair of hydraulic supports 13.

All parts of the digging mechanism are driven by corresponding hydraulic cylinders or their pairs, depending on the design of the machine.

For additional functionality, the excavator can be equipped with a bucket loader of various designs or a leveling dozer blade. The equipment is placed on the front beams of the tractor frame and the front linkage of the tractor. The working bodies are activated by hydraulic power cylinders from the standard hydraulic system of the machine.

Backhoe loader Backhoe bulldozer

An indispensable assistant - a backhoe loader

Excavators are truly indispensable special equipment at any construction site, in a quarry, during search and rescue operations, and when eliminating the consequences of man-made and natural disasters.

Backhoe loaders are multifunctional machines that can dump earthworks, embankments, operate in bulldozer mode, level sites and dig trenches and pits, as well as transport goods on forks or in a bucket. It is precisely this versatility that lies in the advantage and peculiarity of backhoe loaders compared to other types of special equipment.

Using this machine, you can quickly, easily, and efficiently carry out work in the field of road construction, agriculture and forestry. In the domestic market, this type of special equipment is especially popular, despite its high cost. However, for not very large companies and for temporary work, purchasing an excavator is not very profitable. Renting an excavator with a narrow bucket is the best way out. This approach saves a lot of money.

If we dwell in more detail on the areas of application of such excavators, we can say that they are necessary: ​​- in landscape design (landscaping and landscaping work), - for laying and repairing sewer systems (opening and backfilling channels for laying water supply networks),

— for earthmoving work (digging, opening trenches, leveling, crushing), — for road construction (construction and reconstruction of road surfaces),

- for agricultural work (loading fertilizers, bulk materials), - in the development of clay deposits (digging trenches, reloading, unloading various materials, soil, rocks).

This machine combines the properties of an excavator and a front loader. A huge range of various attachments makes it possible to turn the machine into a universal technical tool for performing many types of work. Small size and high maneuverability are the characteristics that allow the backhoe loader to be used in confined working spaces.

Quite high speed and easy control make this technique simply irreplaceable. The excavator can be equipped with an excavator and loading bucket, as well as other equipment: a hydraulic drill, a grab, hydraulic shears, etc.

An excavator is a truly irreplaceable and versatile piece of equipment that is difficult to live without.

Excavator models

With the development of market relations, taking into account the needs of the market, many machine-building enterprises have mastered the production of excavators for wheeled tractors. In conditions of healthy competition, enterprises are making every effort to improve the performance of excavators, modernizing, developing and producing new designs of equipment and components, ensuring their competitive advantage in the market.

EO 2621 – single-bucket excavator

The most widely produced Soviet model of an excavator with a bulldozer blade, popularly called the “Cockerel”. The equipment is installed on the chassis of tractors of the YuMZ 6 brand. It is recognized by a remote fuel tank located in front of the radiator grille and a hydraulic tank installed on the left or right side. Models based on MTZ 82.1 evolved into modifications EO 2621DT with a straight blade and EO 2621DT.1 with a rotating blade. The unit in working condition rests on two inclined legs with hydraulic locks on hydraulic cylinders. The digging body is driven by four hydraulic power cylinders, controlling the boom tilt, arm and bucket. Two hydraulic cylinders control the boom rotation.

EO 2621 based on YuMZ 6

Excavators of the EO 2626 brand produced by the Chelyabinsk Municipal Engineering Plant are a modernized version of their predecessor described above with increased performance indicators. They are placed on the chassis of tractors of the MTZ 82.1 brand and its modifications. Machine versions differ in additional attachments - bucket loaders and dumps of various types. These models are fully equipped with domestically produced components and are distinguished by their competitive price, simplicity of design and maintainability.

EO 2626

Backhoe loaders EP 491 and EP 25

On the 4x4 wheelbase of the MTZ 92P tractor, the production of machines is carried out at the Mozyr Machine-Building Plant, which is part of the production holding of the Minsk Tractor Plant. The EP 491 model is equipped with vertically lowering rear stops. Excavator equipment has the ability to shift the digging axis in an amplitude of 590 mm in each direction, with a boom rotation angle of 180 ̊. A front loader with a capacity of 25 to 70 tons further expands the functionality of the machine. The unit is distinguished by excellent control ergonomics and improved performance.

Backhoe loader EP 25 Backhoe loader EP 491

Backhoe loaders EP 25, EP 25 02 and bulldozer excavator EP 25 01 from the Mozyr plant are produced on the basis of MTZ 82.1. The design of the earthmoving machine has a classic design with inclined paws without shifting the digging axis. Thanks to its fairly low price and high reliability, the unit occupies a place in the line of popular special machines.

IndicatorsEO 2621DT EO 2626 DTEP 25EP-491EP-F-P-01 telescopic boom
MTZ chassisBelarus 82.1Belarus 82.1Belarus 82.1Belarus 92pBelarus 92p
Machine power hp8080808888
Productivity t/h28,83010-3510-4010-40
Bucket volume m.cub.0,2- 0,250,280,250,250,3
Bucket force kN2528313131
Excavator load capacity max. kg 500500750500-950750
Digging depth/discharge height mm4100/40004150/35003900/35004350/34005000/4150
Digging radius mm54005300520053506100
Angle of rotation170 ̊170 ̊170 ̊180 ̊170 ̊

Blooming excavators

EP-F-P, EP-F-P-01, EP-F-B is a series of special earthmoving and loading equipment. equipment for Belarusian wheeled tractors. The installation is located on the chassis of modern tractor models MTZ 82.2, 892, 92P, 920, 920.2, 1221.2. The designs of Blooming excavators can additionally have a shifting digging axis, a telescopic boom arm and balancing vertical stops - outriggers. Excavators can be equipped, at the customer’s request, with a loader with different types of buckets or dumps. The equipment of imported components of machines produced by Blooming provides additional reliability and ergonomics.

Mounted excavator for MTZ

Excavator equipment BL 21 of the Blooming brand is one of the few offerings on the post-Soviet market that allows the use of tractors that have not been technically converted to work with earth-moving mechanisms. The equipment is mounted on the rear linkage of the machine, the drive is carried out from the tractor hydraulic system and is controlled from a remote control station. Equipment digging depth is up to 2500 with an unloading height of 2200 mm. With small capital investments, BL 21 increases the functional use of the tractor fleet of enterprises. Used as auxiliary equipment for small volumes of earthmoving work. The lightweight version of the equipment allows for aggregation with low-power tractors of the MTZ 320 brand.

Excavator attachments BL 21 320 Excavator attachments BL 21 Excavator attachments BL 21 320

Excavator DEM 114

Produced by the Belarusian enterprise Dorelektromash, which specializes in the production of trailed and mounted machines for road repair and maintenance, as well as hydraulic units for completing equipment. The machine is placed on the chassis of tractors Belarus 80.1, 82.1-2 and Belarus 92P and is equipped with components of imported European production of the following brands: Brevini, Busak+Shamban, Filtrek, MaNULLi. Machine modifications are available with front-end loaders or bulldozer rotary blades. The hydraulic equipment is characterized by high reliability, an optimal combination of hydraulic pump performance and the throughput of a joystick-controlled distributor. Excavator unit with a shifting digging axis of 590 mm in each direction. The compact folding of the machine's boom ensures optimal load distribution on the tractor axles and safety when moving the machine. The goal of the Dorelectromash enterprise when producing the DEM 114 machine is “maximum compliance of the equipment with European standards with a competitive price.”

DEM 114 DEM 114 DEM 1144

IndicatorsDEM 114MEN-300EBP 9 EBP 11M EBP 23
Machine power hp1078080107107
Bucket volume cubic meters0,30,10,250,250,25
Digging radius mm.53503900565063005650
Digging depth/height mm.4420/34803100/23004350/35005050/40004350/3500
Bucket force kN3825354030
Bucket load capacity kg.700130500700500
Shift of the digging axis to the side mm.590650600

Excavators EPB

The Belarusian enterprise PMK 567 LLC, established in 2003, mastered the production of excavator equipment for MTZ brand tractors. The company produces four models of excavators: EPB 9 standard installation with inclined stops; EPB 11 with a shifting digging axis, reinforced hydraulic cylinders and additional support for working in the extreme positions of the carriage shifting the digging axis; EPB 23 with the performance indicators of EPB 9 equipped with a shifting digging axis, supported by outriggers; mini-excavator mounted on the rear linkage of the MEN 300 tractor with a bucket of 0.1 cubic meters. The wheelbase of the excavators is the MTZ 92P tractor. The company produces machines combining the functions of an excavator-loader and an excavator-bulldozer.

EPB 9 EPB 9 Axle displacement carriage EPB 11 EPB 11M EPB 23 EPB 23 Mini mounted excavator MEN 300 mounted excavator MEN 300 Mini mounted excavator MEN 300 Mini mounted excavator MEN 300

Wheeled excavators of the Amkador brand

Earth-moving machines are manufactured in the production holding OJSC Amkador with the holding company managing it in Moscow. Having in its structure a number of machine-building enterprises. The manufacturer completes the equipment as much as possible with units and parts of its own production, which is a competitive advantage for the manufacturer. The company has an extensive network of its own and representative trade and service enterprises throughout Russia and neighboring countries.

Backhoe loader 702EA Backhoe loader 702EM Backhoe loader 703M

To place excavator equipment on wheeled chassis, a base of MTZ 92P tractors is used. For MTZ machines, the company produces two excavator units, “Amkador 702” and “Amkador 703”. The machines are produced in combination with loading (702 EM, 702 EA) or bulldozer equipment (702EB). Excavators "Amkador 702" have a bucket volume of 0.18 cubic meters, with a digging depth of up to 4100 mm and an unloading height of 3500 mm with a digging radius of 5450 mm. The design of the Amkador 703 machine allows you to work with a displaced digging axis of 600 mm in each direction, relying on vertical balancing outriggers. The maximum digging depth is 5000 mm, the unloading height is 4160 mm with a maximum digging radius of 6230 with a digging bucket of 0.28 cubic meters.

The choice of MTZ brand tractors for equipment based on special machines indicates the sufficient technical versatility of the equipment, its reliability and high performance when operating in various conditions. Special machines on the chassis of new modifications of Belarus brand tractors successfully compete with foreign-made machines, not inferior in technical indicators and ergonomics, and having an advantage in cost.

What types of excavators are there?

Excavators are a group of machines designed for simultaneous excavation and loading and unloading operations. Today this is the main type of equipment used in such work.

According to the principle of operation, these machines can be divided into two groups: continuous operation (multi-bucket) and cyclic operation (single-bucket).

Multi-bucket excavators provide a continuous process of collecting and loading soil. As a rule, they are used in conjunction with a conveyor, which transports the soil constantly pouring out onto it onto a truck or places it in shafts. Such excavators are used at sites where constant movement of soil is required, for example, during road construction.

Cyclic excavators are much more often used in construction. For example, the website https://td-v.ru/exkavator/ presents single-bucket excavators of various capacities and with different bucket volumes. These machines are highly productive, and due to the ability to use various attachments, they can be considered almost universal.

Excavators also differ in the type of undercarriage. Among them are:

  • Wheeled, which are based on a tractor or automobile (off-road vehicles) chassis. These excavators are characterized by good mobility and high speed of movement.
  • Tracked, equipped with rubber, rubber-metal or metal tracked chassis. The main advantage of these machines is their high cross-country ability. For example, they are indispensable on loose soils. They are usually delivered to their place of work using auxiliary equipment.
  • Walking, moving with the help of special support shoes or paws. The main area of ​​their use is rock development and mining. They are often equipped with a boom (dragline).
  • Railway, they are installed on railway platforms and used for work in close proximity to the railway track.
  • Floating, this technique is fixed on pontoons. It is used to deepen a river bed, clean a reservoir, or extract sand from the bottom.

In addition, excavators may differ in functionality. There are the following types of excavators:

  • With a mechanical shovel - a classic model for excavation and loading work.
  • A dragline excavator works with soil below the level of the machine itself.
  • A plow excavator clears snow on the railroad tracks.
  • A leveling excavator works to level embankments and excavations in the subgrade.
  • A trench excavator develops trenches for main pipelines and is used for reclamation work, backfilling of trenches, and land reclamation.
  • A mini-excavator is used to perform small-scale excavation work.
( 2 ratings, average 4.5 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]